The ancient Gnostic texts, which had been hidden in a jar buried by monks hoping to preserve them from destruction, provided alternative perspectives on Jesus that were hailed as significant additions to the understanding of the formative years of Christianity.
Robinson went on to become one of the world's great New Testament experts, and railed against scholars who tried to restrict access to biblical texts. Meyer received his doctorate and soon established himself as one of the foremost experts on Gnosticism and early Christianity.
In June 2005, he was tapped by representatives of the National Geographic Society to help translate what it said was an important Gnostic text. But Meyer had to sign a confidentiality oath before they would even say what it was.
"I told them the offer was quite irregular," Meyer recalled in an interview. "They said, 'You won't be disappointed.' So I signed."
Meyer learned that the society had the only known copy of the Gospel of Judas, a Coptic translation from the original Greek that had been the subject of tantalizing rumors but had never surfaced publicly.
He helped the society's team translate the Coptic into English, then traveled to Egypt to film a made-for-TV documentary about the discovery. He was prepped for a publicity tour that would have him for the first time traveling by limousine and staying in ritzy hotels.
"We used to laugh about all that because he was just as happy flopping out in flea-bag hotels in remote corners of the world," his wife recalled. "But he was excited about the opportunities that being on a world stage provided in terms of sharing his work on a scale that he never thought possible."
In Meyer's view, the gospel portrayed Judas as a hero, not a villain, for betraying Jesus. Instead, Judas acted on Jesus' orders and betrayed him to set in motion the Crucifixion. In the gospel, Jesus confides to Judas: "Step away from the others and I shall tell you the mysteries of the kingdom. It is possible for you to reach it, but you will grieve a great deal."
In September 2005, Meyer let it slip to Robinson that he knew a lot about the long-rumored Gospel of Judas but couldn't talk about it. After Robinson demanded to know more, Meyer responded in a terse e-mail: "I'm sorry, but I must say, no comment. Marv."
As the publication of Meyer's "The Gospel of Judas" neared in 2006, Robinson was asked by a publisher to write his own Judas book, which he finished in a month. Rushed to print, Robinson's "The Secrets of Judas" criticized the National Geographic Society for withholding the gospel from other scholars.
Meyer, however, argued that publishing the gospel through National Geographic brought an important obscure text to the greatest number of people in the shortest amount of time.
Through it all, the mentor and protege remained friends.